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Egg consumption and risk of coronary heart disease and stroke (2013-02-13)


It is already known that cardiovascular disease affects millions of people and as a major source of dietary cholesterol, eggs have been investigated by several epidemiologic studies in relation to risk of coronary heart disease and stroke, however, whether egg consumption increases the future risk of coronary heart disease and stroke remains unclear.

The objective of this meta-analysis was to investigate and quantify the potential dose-response association between egg consumption and risk of coronary heart disease and stroke.
Eight articles with 17 reports (nine for coronary heart disease, eight for stroke) were eligible for inclusion in the meta-analysis (3 081 269 person years and 5847 incident cases for coronary heart disease, and 4 148 095 person years and 7579 incident cases for stroke).

Among the known risk factors for cardiovascular disease, levels of low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol have aroused particular attention. In the Women’s Health Study, after a mean follow-up of eight years, participants with the highest levels of LDL cholesterol showed a notably higher risk of cardiovascular events than those with the lowest levels. In addition, several meta-analyses of observational studies and randomized controlled trials have found that a reduction in concentrations of LDL cholesterol could significantly reduce the risk of coronary heart disease and stroke incidence and mortality.
Diet is an important determinant of serum cholesterol, but dietary cholesterol has only a modest contribution to plasma concentrations of LDL cholesterol.
On the other hand, dietary cholesterol may prompt the oxidation of LDL and increase postprandial lipemia, which could raise the risk of vascular disease.
To minimize the elevation of blood cholesterol and reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease, the American Heart Association (AHA) has recommended the public to consume less than 300 mg/day of cholesterol.

Since eggs are a major source of dietary cholesterol, with one large egg containing almost 210 mg of cholesterol, the public has been recommended to limit egg consumption unless the intake of other foods high in cholesterol is restricted.
However, eggs are also an inexpensive and low calorie source of many other nutrients, including minerals, proteins, and unsaturated fatty acids, which could lower the risk of cardiovascular disease.
Additionally, in populations following a carbohydrate restricted diet, dietary cholesterol from eggs could increase plasma concentrations of high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, which has been suggested to protect against vascular disease.
Therefore, some organizations have recommended that reducing egg intake might not be important for healthy people with normal levels of cholesterol in the blood. Food based dietary guidelines from countries including Nepal, Thailand, and South Africa recommend consuming eggs every day or regularly as part of a healthy diet.

This study shows that consumption of up to one egg per day was not associated with increased risk of coronary heart disease or stroke. Similar results were obtained in subgroup analyses. However, among diabetic participants, higher egg consumption was associated with a significantly elevated risk of coronary heart disease. On the other hand, higher egg intake was associated with a lower risk of hemorrhagic stroke. These subgroup results should be interpreted with caution, because only a few studies focused on diabetic participants and particular stroke subtypes.

Some studies have found an inverse association between egg consumption and stroke risk. For example, an analysis of the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1988-1994 (NHANES III) dataset found a significant inverse association between higher egg consumption and stroke mortality among men. A cohort study from Japan found that increased consumption of animal products (including eggs) was associated with reduced risk of total and hemorrhagic stroke death.

For more information
Egg consumption and risk of coronary heart disease and stroke: dose-response meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies. BMJ 2013;346:e8539.
Ying Rong, doctoral student, Li Chen, research fellow, Tingting Zhu, research fellow, Yadong Song, research fellow, Miao Yu, research fellow, Zhilei Shan, research fellow, Amanda Sands, doctoral student, Frank B Hu, professor, Liegang Liu, professor.



L'armadietto omeopatico casalingo
(del Dott. Turetta)
Quali sono i problemi o le disfunzioni che possono giovarsi di un intervento omeopatico d'urgenza e, di conseguenza, come dovrebbe essere un ideale armadietto medicinale omeopatico casalingo.

A cura di: Dott.ssa S.Cavalli, Dott. L. Colombo, Dott. U. Zuccardi Merli


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