Red wine components can influence favorably gut microbiota, but Interactions of red wine, gut microbiota and plasma metabolomics remain unclear.
To assess the effects upon gut microbiota and plasma metabolomic profile of short-term, moderate red wine intake in patients, 42 males aged 60.4±5.4 years (SD) with documented coronary artery disease by angiography, underwent a randomized, crossover, controlled, interventional trial.
They were assigned to either red wine treatment or abstinence from any alcoholic beverage, as control.
Each treatment was preceded by a 2-week washout period.
During the intervention, subjects ingested 250 ml of red wine per day/ 5 days a week/ 3 weeks.
Fasting blood samples and fecal samples were collected 4 times, after washout and at the end of each 3-week intervention.
Gut microbiota was analysed by 16 S rRNA gene sequences and plasma metabolomics was performed by Ultrahigh Performance Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectroscopy.
Twenty patients chosen randomly had their global metabolic profiles examined at all visits.
Diet was carefully controlled and quantified by a 3 day/week questionnaire at beginning and end of the study.
Prebiotics, probiotics were not allowed during the study. Patients in need for antibiotic therapy were not included.
In the red wine period compared to abstinence, fecal metagenomic revealed:
a decrease in abundance of Collinsella, a bacterial genus correlated with atherosclerosis;
an increase in Eubacterium, genus related to fiber digestion and bile acid metabolism;
a significant increase in alpha diversity (p<0.05 for all).
In plasma, trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO), fell non-significantly post red wine consumption.
HDL and resveratrol increased after red wine consumption (p<0.05).
Plasma metabolomic analysis of 20 patients revealed microbiome related changes associated with red wine consumption:
decreased levels of phenylalanine, benzoate, tyrosine and tryptophan;
lower levels of primary bile acids cholate, taurocholate,
and also secondary bile acids deoxycholate and lithocholate sulfate.
In parallel, red wine elevated androgenic steroids and decreased beta oxidation (p<0.05 for all).
Simultaneously total energy, proteins, carbohydrates and fat components of the diet did not change significantly.
Moderate red wine ingestion augmented microbiota diversity, increased the proportion of putative anti-atherosclerotic bacteria and influenced plasma metabolomics.
Red wine influenced energy metabolism through gut microbiota related plasma changes in amino acids, nucleotide profile, bile acids, androgenic steroids and beta-oxidation.
These findings furnish some novel insight into mechanisms whereby red wine may mitigate atherosclerosis.
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For more information
European Heart Journal
Beneficial effects of red wine intake upon gut microbiota and parallel effects upon plasma metabolomics
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