Chemicals with hormonelike activity, such as estrogenic isoflavones, may perturb human development.
Infants exclusively fed soy-based formula are highly exposed to isoflavones, but their physiologic responses remain uncharacterized.
Estrogen-responsive postnatal development was compared in infants exclusively fed soy formula, cow-milk formula, and breast milk.
Maternal demographics did not differ between cow-milk–fed and soy-fed infants but did differ between formula-fed and breastfed infants.
Relative to girls fed cow-milk formula, those fed soy formula demonstrated tissue – and organ – level developmental trajectories consistent with response to exogenous estrogen exposure.
Studies are needed to further evaluate the effects of soy on child development.
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A Longitudinal Study of Estrogen-Responsive Tissues and Hormone Concentrations in Infants Fed Soy Formula