A growing body of evidence suggests that
endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) contribute to
female reproductive disorders. Researchers estimated
the economic costs of female reproductive disorders
attributable to endocrine disrupting chemical
exposures. These may contribute substantially to
fibroids and endometriosis, costing nearly €1.5
An expert panel evaluated evidence for probability
of causation using the Intergovernmental Panel on
Climate Change weight-of-evidence characterization.
Exposure-response relationships and reference levels
were evaluated, and biomarker data were organized
from carefully identified studies from the
peer-reviewed literature to represent European
exposure and approximate burden of disease as it
occurred in 2010. Cost-of-illness estimation used
multiple peer-reviewed sources.
Cost estimation was carried out from a societal
perspective, ie, including direct costs (eg,
treatment costs) and indirect costs such as
The most robust EDC-related data for female
reproductive disorders exist for
both cases, the strength of epidemiological evidence
was rated as low and the toxicological evidence as
moderate, with an assigned probability of causation
Across the EU, attributable cases were estimated to
be 56 700 and 145 000 women, respectively, with
total combined economic and health care costs
potentially reaching €163 million and €1.25 billion.
(diphenyldichloroethene and phthalates) may
contribute substantially to the most common
reproductive disorders in women, endometriosis and
fibroids, costing nearly €1.5 billion annually.
These estimates represent only EDCs for which there
were sufficient epidemiologic studies and those with
the highest probability of causation.
public health costs should be considered as the EU
contemplates regulatory action on EDCs.
Estimated Costs of Endocrine-Disrupting Chemical
Exposure Exceed €150 Billion Annually in EU
Female Reproductive Disorders, Diseases, and Costs
of Exposure to Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals in the